WebLogic RCE Leads to XMRig


This report will review an intrusion where, the threat actor took advantage of a WebLogic remote code execution vulnerability (CVE-2020–14882) to gain initial access to the system before installing a coin miner (XMRig).


In the attack, the threat actor took around 2 minutes from initial access, to running a persistent coin miner. The speed and number of times the exploit was ran against the target make it likely that this was an automated attack, rather than human operated intrusion.

The threat actor exploited CVE-2020-14882 by making a request to the WebLogic server, which allowed the attacker to execute code. The payload then ran a PowerShell command to download a PowerShell script from a remote server. This script downloaded a loader and executed it, then it enabled persistence mechanisms. Next, the loader downloaded XMRig, and started the mining process.

While this attack took place around a month ago the payloads used in the intrusion continue to be hosted as of this publication, indicating that this threat is still active and finding vulnerable WebLogic hosts to continue exploiting.


Analysis and reporting completed by @tas_kmanager and @TheDFIRReport

Reviewed by @iiamaleks and @samaritan_o



Initial Access 

Before jumping into the details of the attack, it is pertinent to understand CVE-2020-14882. This vulnerability was discovered back in October 2020, which effects Oracle’s WebLogic product. [1] We previously reported on an intrusion that also used this exploit and ended in a coin miner. This vulnerability is easy to exploit, and leads to remote code execution (RCE) without authentication.  

Just by invoking URL path /console/images/%252E%252E%252Fconsole.portal and a little bit of tweaking of the packet sent to the server, the threat actor will be able to run their code on the server.

In this case, we can clearly see from network logs that the attacker was probing the portal page and followed that by sending the crafted URL request.

The detailed payload in the header can be observed below:

Interestingly, we can see the threat actor chose the FileSystemXmlApplicationContext class to carry out this attack, executing a file named poc.xml. This technique is listed in PoC developed by Jang. [2

Below we can see the payload inside of the xml file hosted in the attacker server. The payload will execute the PowerShell command on the vulnerable system.


The threat actor leveraged the WebLogic vulnerability to spawn a command shell from the server running in the Java process, which then in turn, was used to run PowerShell and collect the final payload that the threat actor wished to run on the system.

Next, let us investigate the content of the PowerShell script (ldr.ps1) 

On line one, we can see var $cc (can be pronounced as C2?) that indicates the server where it will get all the other components such as the payload sys.exe. The next line sets up random characters to be appended to the payload executable.

This binary (renamed to sysvr013.exe) was then executed by the same script.


There are several persistence mechanisms observed. The first one utilizes schtasks to create a task called “BrowserUpdate”. 

schtasks /create /F /sc minute /mo 1 /tn "BrowserUpdate" /tr "$dst"

It also created a registry run key to execute the miner binary on reboot.

reg add HKCU\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run /v Run /d "$dst" /t REG_SZ /f

We also observed the Loader binary adding npf.sys (WinPcap binary) as a scheduled task.

Privilege Escalation 

No privilege escalation was observed, but note that the Java.exe process was running as a high integrity process from the start.  

Defense Evasion 

From the PowerShell script above (ldr.ps1), we can see that name is being randomized to avoid detection by blue team. We can also see that the attacker disabled firewall rules to make sure connection to the mining pool was not blocked.  

netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state off

As noted above, the attacker created a task called “BrowserUpdate” to masquerade the scheduled task as a web browser update task. 


We can see several local discovery commands executed from the PowerShell script.  They are looking for existing mining process on the machine, such as kthreaddisysrv, etc. They also utilize netstat to find if any process is using mining related ports, such as 3333, 4444, etc.

This is likely partially to kill other rival miners but also to prevent duplicate miners on the same host as the exploit was executed against the target repeatedly in quick succession, at least 12 times.


We saw that the additional sys.exe binary and ldr.ps1 PowerShell script was brought in to support the Mining operation from IP address 194[.]145[.]227[.]21 

We also observed connection from [kthreaddi].exe talking to crypto mining pools

Eventually, the crypto mining operation will cause performance issue with the WebLogic server.

XMRig Config file

"api": {
"id": null,
"worker-id": null
"autosave": false,
"background": true,
"randomx": {
"init": -1,
"mode": "auto",
"1gb-pages": false,
"rdmsr": true,
"wrmsr": true,
"cache_qos": false,
"numa": true,
"scratchpad_prefetch_mode": 1
"cpu": {
"enabled": true,
"huge-pages": true,
"huge-pages-jit": false,
"hw-aes": null,
"priority": null,
"memory-pool": false,
"yield": true,
"max-threads-hint": 100,
"asm": true,
"argon2-impl": null,
"astrobwt-max-size": 550,
"cn/0": false,
"cn-lite/0": false,
"kawpow": false
"donate-level": 0,
"donate-over-proxy": 0,
"log-file": null,
"pools": [
"algo": null,
"coin": "monero",
"url": "xmr-eu2.nanopool.org:14444",
"user": "49dnvYkWkZNPrDj3KF8fR1BHLBfiVArU6Hu61N9gtrZWgbRptntwht5JUrXX1ZeofwPwC6fXNxPZfGjNEChXttwWE3WGURa.w",
"pass": "x",
"rig-id": null,
"nicehash": false,
"keepalive": false,
"enabled": true,
"tls": false,
"tls-fingerprint": null,
"daemon": false,
"socks5": null,
"m-select": null
}, {
"algo": null,
"coin": "monero",
"url": "xmr.f2pool.com:13531",
"user": "49dnvYkWkZNPrDj3KF8fR1BHLBfiVArU6Hu61N9gtrZWgbRptntwht5JUrXX1ZeofwPwC6fXNxPZfGjNEChXttwWE3WGURa",
"pass": "x",
"rig-id": null,
"nicehash": false,
"keepalive": false,
"enabled": true,
"tls": false,
"tls-fingerprint": null,
"daemon": false,
"socks5": null,
"self-select": null
"retries": 5,
"retry-pause": 5,
"syslog": false,
"user-agent": null,
"verbose": 0,
"watch": false,
"pause-on-battery": false





Exploit Source IP 191[.]252[.]219[.]71



please note that you need to enable webserver logging on the WebLogic server





SERVER-WEBAPP Oracle WebLogic Server command injection attempt



ET INFO Executable Download from dotted-quad Host
AV POLICY HTTP request for .exe file with no User-Agent
ET CURRENT_EVENTS Terse alphanumeric executable downloader high likelihood of being hostile
ET INFO Packed Executable Download
ET INFO Executable Retrieved With Minimal HTTP Headers - Potential Second Stage Download
ET INFO SUSPICIOUS Dotted Quad Host MZ Response
ET POLICY Cryptocurrency Miner Checkin
ETPRO TROJAN CoinMiner Known Malicious Stratum Authline


YARA Rule Set
Author: The DFIR Report
Date: 2021-06-03
Identifier: 3580 WebLogic XMRig Miner
Reference: https://thedfirreport.com

/* Rule Set ----------------------------------------------------------------- */

import "pe"

rule sysrv013 {
description = "files - file sysrv013.exe"
author = "The DFIR Report"
reference = "https://thedfirreport.com"
date = "2021-06-03"
hash1 = "80bc76202b75201c740793ea9cd33b31cc262ef01738b053e335ee5d07a5ba96"
$s1 = "eDumped" fullword ascii
$s2 = "OGhZVFNVRms6" fullword ascii /* base64 encoded string '8hYTSUFk:' */
$s3 = "sdumpsebslemW^" fullword ascii
$s4 = ":ERNEL32.DLLODe?" fullword ascii
$s5 = "pircsek" fullword ascii
$s6 = "IDE5NC4xNDUu" fullword ascii /* base64 encoded string ' 194.145.' */
$s7 = "333444" ascii /* reversed goodware string '444333' */
$s8 = "aHx8d2dldCAtLXVzZXItYW" fullword ascii /* base64 encoded string 'h||wget --user-a' */
$s9 = "h -c {%" fullword ascii
$s10 = "?$?)?2?9?{" fullword ascii /* hex encoded string ')' */
$s11 = ";5A;6D2!D" fullword ascii /* hex encoded string 'Zm-' */
$s12 = "3GRAt\\5" fullword ascii
$s13 = "Gorget{" fullword ascii
$s14 = "7!7&7,727" fullword ascii /* hex encoded string 'ww'' */
$s15 = "* {5C;" fullword ascii
$s16 = "fsftp_fC" fullword ascii
$s17 = "POSTulL" fullword ascii
$s18 = "gogetv/" fullword ascii
$s19 = "\\x86+.pdb" fullword ascii
$s20 = "_DIRCWD?" fullword ascii
uint16(0) == 0x5a4d and filesize < 10000KB and
( pe.imphash() == "406f4cbdf82bde91761650ca44a3831a" or 8 of them )


Exploit Public-Facing Application – T1190 
Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell – T1059.001 
Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell – T1059.003 
Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task – T1053.005 
Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder – T1547.001 
Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify System Firewall – T1562.004 
Masquerading: Masquerade Task or Service – T1036.004 
Process Discovery – T1057 
System Network Connections Discovery – T1049 
Ingress Tool Transfer – T1105 
Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols – T1071.001 
Resource Hijacking – T1496 

Internal case 3580